Beschädigung eines betrieblich genutzten Kraftfahrzeugs (German Edition)

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Army Air Corps began in February with the second aircraft, At least two of the earliest Bs suffered hard landings and damage to the main landing gear, engine mounts, propellers and fuselage. The type was grounded briefly in April [11] to investigate the landing difficulties. Two causes were found: insufficient landing speed producing a stall and improper weight distribution. The latter was due to the lack of a dorsal turret; the Martin power turret was not yet ready. Some of the very earliest Bs suffered collapses of the nose landing gear. It is said that they were caused by improper weight distribution, but that is not likely to have been the only reason.

The incidents occurred during low-speed taxiing, takeoffs and landings, and occasionally the strut unlocked. Later the Martin electric dorsal turret was retrofitted to some of the first Bs.

Mr Honey's Banking Dictionary (English-German)

Martin also began testing a taller vertical stabilizer and revised tail gunner's position in Human error and some failures of the mechanism occasionally placed the propeller blades in flat pitch resulting in an overspeeding propeller, sometimes known as a 'runaway prop'. Due to its sound and the possibility that the propeller blades could disintegrate, this situation was particularly frightening for aircrews. More challenging was a loss of power in one engine during takeoff.

These and other malfunctions, as well as human error, claimed a number of aircraft and the commanding officer of the 22nd Bombardment Group, Colonel Mark Lewis. The Martin B suffered only two fatal accidents during its first year of flight, from November to November a crash shortly after takeoff near Martin's Middle River plant in Maryland cause unknown, but engine malfunction strongly suggested and the loss of a 38th Bombardment Group B when its vertical stabilizer and rudder separated from the aircraft at altitude cause unknown, but the accident report discussed the possibility that a canopy hatch broke off and struck the vertical stabilizer.

As pilots were trained quickly for the war, relatively inexperienced pilots entered the cockpit and the accident rate increased. This occurred at the same time as more experienced B pilots of the 22nd, 38th and 42nd Bombardment Groups were proving the merits of the bomber. For a time in , pilots in training believed that the B could not be flown on one engine. This was disproved by several experienced pilots, including Colonel Jimmy Doolittle, who flew demonstration flights at MacDill Army Air Field, which featured take offs and landings with only one engine.

In , aviation pioneer and company founder Glenn L. Martin was called before the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program, or also known as the 'Truman Committee' , which was investigating defense contracting abuses. Martin responded that the wings were too short. Senator Truman curtly asked why the wings had not been changed.

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When Martin replied that the plans were too far along and besides, his company already had the contract, Truman's testy response was quick and to the point: In that case, the contract would be canceled. Martin corrected the wings. This instability is similar to 'Dutch roll'. This would make for a very uncomfortable ride, especially for the tail gunner. The B is stated by the 9th Air Force to have had the lowest combat loss rate of any US aircraft used during the war. Nevertheless, it remained a challenging aircraft to fly and continued to be unpopular with some pilots throughout its military career.

One of the largest of these articles was in the May issue of Popular Mechanics.

Mr Honey's Banking Dictionary (English-German) | E Text | Project Gutenberg

In early combat, the aircraft took heavy losses, but was still one of the most successful medium-range bombers used by the US Army Air Forces. In , when B production was halted, 5, had been built.

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There, the 38th continued the testing of the B, including its range and fuel efficiency. Immediately after the entry of the United States into World War II, plans were tentatively developed to send the 38th BG to the South West Pacific and to equip it with BBs fitted with more auxiliary fuel tanks and provisions for carrying aerial torpedoes. Two were shot down and the other two were so badly damaged that they were written off after the mission. Their torpedoes failed to hit any Japanese ships, although they did shoot down one Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter and killed two seamen aboard the aircraft carrier Akagi with machine-gun fire.

On one occasion, a B was credited with shooting down a Kawanishi H6K flying boat. The B flew its last combat mission in the theatre on 9 January They were initially used to carry out low-level attacks against heavily defended targets, incurring heavy losses with poor results, before switching to medium level attacks. By the end of the North African Campaign, the three B groups had flown 1, sorties, losing 80 aircraft.

Operations were similar to those flown in North Africa with Bs flying at low level and were unsuccessful. The second mission, an unescorted attack on a power station at IJmuiden, Netherlands, resulted in the loss of the entire attacking force of 11 Bs to anti-aircraft fire and Luftwaffe Focke-Wulf Fw fighters. The Marauder, operating from medium altitude, proved to be a highly accurate aircraft, with the 9th Air Force rating it the most accurate bomber available in the final month of the war in Europe.

The Squadron flew its first operational mission on 6 November , being used for long range reconnaissance, mine-laying and anti-shipping strikes. The Marauder also proved useful in disrupting enemy air transport, shooting down considerable numbers of German and Italian transport aircraft flying between Italy and North Africa.


In the immediate post-war years, a small number of Marauders were converted as high-speed executive transports, accommodating up to fifteen passengers. The specifications of the individual conversions differed considerably. It served United Airlines before being sold to Mexico. It was purchased by the Confederate Air Force and restored to wartime markings for air display purposes before being lost in a fatal crash in Prototypes were not characterized with the usual 'X' or 'Y' designations.

Armament consisted of two. BA — Incorporated changes made on the production line to the B, including upgrading the two. BB—Single tail gun replaced with twin guns; belly-mounted 'tunnel gun' added. Armament was increased from six to twelve. The tail gun was upgraded from manual to power operated.

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Armor was added to protect the pilot and copilot. Although nominally the BB was the first variant to receive the longer wing, it was actually installed on BCs before the BB, both being in production simultaneously. Trainer modification of BC. Approximately modified XBD—Modified B used to test hot air de-icing equipment, in which heat exchangers transferred heat from engine exhaust to air circulated to the leading and trailing edges of the wing and empennage surfaces.

One converted BE—Modified BB constructed to test the effectiveness of moving the dorsal gun turret from the aft fuselage to just behind the cockpit. Although the tests showed that gains were made with the new arrangement, it was insignificant. After a cost analysis, it was concluded that the effort needed to convert production lines to the BE arrangement was not worth the effort.

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  8. One converted BF—Angle-of-incidence of wings increased by 3. One hundred of these were BFMAs. Starting with , a revised oil cooler was added, along with wing bottom panels redesigned for easier removal. The F-2 had the Bell M-6 power turret replaced by an M-6A with a flexible canvas cover over the guns. The T-1 bombsight was installed instead of the M-series sight. British bomb fusing and radio equipment were provided. With the exception of the BC, all models and variants of the B were produced at Martin's Middle River, Maryland manufacturing plant.

    It was obtained from the mechanics' training school of French airline Air France near Paris in June This aircraft survived operational missions over Europe, more than any other American aircraft during World War II. Deadly Duo. Retrieved: 5 August Martin Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 5 October Retrieved: 29 November James F.

    Collins — Retrieved January 12, Retrieved: 9 October Retrieved: 7 January Retrieved: 2 August America's Hundred Thousand: U. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, Retrieved: 23 August Retrieved: 7 October Retrieved: 11 May Retrieved: 13 August Retrieved: 15 December Retrieved: 31 August Retrieved: 22 April Bibliography[edit]Birdsall, Steve.

    B Marauder in Action Aircraft number Bridgman, Leonard. London: Studio, Brown, Kenneth. Pacifica, California: Pacifica Press, Donald, David, ed. London: Aerospace Publishing, Ehrhardt, Patrick.