Climates of Global Competition (Routledge Studies in Global Competition)

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For instance, in a study on the image of India as a travel destination Kale and Weir, , culture as a touristic attribute was found to be the most important in attracting American respondents. They believed the country to be an exotic Eastern country with a long history and unique cultural heritage. International migrants from less developed countries with relatively low incomes tend to move to wealthier countries where job prospects are higher.

However, there are other factors at play besides the predominant role of employment-related factors such as job opportunities, higher wage levels, unemployment rates Harris and Todaro, ; Todaro, This is especially fuelling skilled migration, since corruption is likely to diminish the returns for the better educated.

For example, after the Communists gained control of Eastern Europe in the late s, many people were pulled toward the democracies in Western Europe and North America. For instance, in Florida and Vancouver Island there are many retirees who enjoy swimming and the beach almost all year round. By contrast, environmental migrants International Organization for Migration, or environmental refugees Bates, ; Myers, are forced to move from their homes due to adverse physical conditions and environmental threats.

Thus, several studies have pointed out that migration decisions are multi-causal, incorporating both environmental and socioeconomic factors along with the political Black, ; Castles, ; Hulme, ; Kibreab, ; McGregor, From a theoretical perspective, multi-dimensional factors attracting the relevant stakeholders to a country can be explained using two causal paths.

First, signaling theory can explain the mechanism of how the economic aspects of country attractiveness affect the success of hosting international investments. This theory, which was developed by Nobel Prize-winning economist Michael Spence , can provide a rich theoretical base from which to explore the concept in a contemporary marketing context.

The conceptualization of country attractiveness: a review of research

This can be achieved by demonstrating how high-quality prospective employees distinguish themselves from low-quality applicants through the costly signal of rigorous higher education. The concept has been applied to illuminate how one party takes action to signal its latent and unobservable qualities to other parties to reduce information asymmetry between the two Spence, Second, on the supply side, this can lead each country to try to utilize its economic attractiveness via marketing strategies.

Since signaling is costly for countries that have poor market conditions, nations that expect to be more profitable in the future can signal their prospects in ways that cannot be mimicked by undeveloped economies as they may be vulnerable to financial distress in hosting an event. Second, the impact of intangible i. According to Nye , power between countries can be wielded in three ways: threat of force the stick , inducement with payments the carrot , or shaping the preferences of others to get them to want the outcomes that you want.

Although hard power by the use of coercion or threats is still essential for the survival of countries in the arena of traditional security and military order, social and environmental changes e.

Climates of Global Competition (Routledge Studies in Global Competition)

Nye , pointed out that soft power rests primarily on three sources: its culture in places where it is attractive to others , its political values when it lives up to them at home and abroad , and its foreign policies when they are seen as legitimate and having moral authority. As resources of soft power, culture refers to not only high culture such as literature, art and education, appealing to the elites, but mass entertainment such as television, cinema, pop music and sports as well. Political values such as democracy, justice, equality and transparency strongly affect the preferences of the people of other nations.

Creativity, Innovation and the Cultural Economy Routledge Studies in Global Competition pdf download

Britain and Germany rank ahead as havens for asylum seekers. Therefore, soft power can be used as means of development and management of tourism and migration Hollinshead and Hou, ; Nye, By reviewing the commonalities and distinctions of three research fields from the perspectives of international business, tourism and immigration Table 1 , country attractiveness can broadly be defined as the degree to which a country is preferred to others in the eyes of its relevant stakeholders on the basis of certain criteria including tangible and intangible elements.

Thus, the more stakeholders believe that a country will satisfy their preferences, the more attractive the country will be and thus be more likely to be selected as a host. Table 1.

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Comparison of international business, tourism and migration. By symmetrically conceptualizing country attractiveness using the perspectives of the three academic disciplines, all of these components in the research discussed above can be remapped under the scheme of sustainable development which is a useful classification of each element into three pillars.

Hence, it is possible to consider the multifaceted nature of attractiveness at the national level by encompassing three sub-groups such as economic, social, and environmental attractiveness. The key elements can be divided into three related and complementary dimensions as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Conceptualization of country attractiveness. Table 2 organizes past research findings according to the economic, social, and environmental dimensions. In particular, signaling and soft power theories can provide conceptual building blocks covering all aspects of the existing empirical findings.

Though each measurement of the key factors of the three dimensions can be advanced by more sophisticated composite indices, the examples suggested in Table 2 could provide a useful starting point for future research. However, it is difficult, if not impossible, for a country with a very low level of country attractiveness to dramatically improve its attractiveness in the short run. That is, countries in a globally competitive setting can make use of their relatively higher attractiveness in each dimension to succeed.

Figure 1 compares China and Switzerland in terms of their strengths and weaknesses of country attractiveness. For instance, in competing to host the Olympic Games, China was a developing country with the relative strength of economic growth as a tangible resource. Thus, countries that have higher economic attractiveness can promote their prospects for maximizing the creation of revenue through hosting the Olympic Games.

Note : Due to relative comparison of the two countries, values for each variable were standardized as z -scores and displayed on each axis. In order to be directionally consistent with the other indicators, values of CO 2 and particle PM10 emissions were reversed with opposite signs. It has been hosting many different types of governmental and non-governmental international organizations for over years in fields as diverse as humanitarian aid, trade, human rights, environment and sustainable development, training and education, peace-keeping and security, meteorology, intellectual property, nuclear research, health, telecommunications, labor and international sports.

Furthermore, comparatively, the country has a better environmental record as an intangible resource and has hosted many world championships for winter sports. It has done so by utilizing promotion strategies with a high focus on the principle of environmental sustainability as a core part of its bids Chappelet, Although the importance of country attractiveness is readily recognized, there has been minimal exploration of whether the concept can be used for evaluating the success factors of other domains in global competition. Further research will require the application of the analytical concept of country attractiveness to other areas of international competition.

I thank my dissertation advisor Professor Jean-Loup Chappelet for his valuable comments on the development of the research. For instance, a cultural domain proxied by sporting success McClory, may also be measured by various indices related to the industries of film, television, pop music, and so on. Also, the bids of Sion for the and Winter Olympic Games emphasized environmental protection and sustainable development Chappelet, His research interests include organization theory, public management, international public administration, performance evaluation, government regulation and social policies.

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Article Information Volume: 82 issue: 4, page s : Article first published online: May 27, ; Issue published: December 1, Points for practitioners. Keywords country attractiveness , country marketing , international business , international migration , international public administration , international tourism , national competitiveness , soft power , sustainable development. Review of country attractiveness research.


Importance of country attractiveness in global competition. International business research. International tourism and migration research. Theoretical perspectives on country attractiveness. Conceptualizing country attractiveness.

Climates of Global Competition (Routledge Studies in Global Competition) by Bengtsson, Maria

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