Cotton (Investigate Materials)

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Or a cooking pot with a material that acts as an insulator? Insulation helps keep cold things from warming up and warm things from cooling down. Insulators do this by slowing down the loss of heat from warm things and the gaining of heat by cool things. Plastics and rubber are usually good insulators.

Humanoid Identification of Fabric Material Properties by Vibration Spectrum Analysis

It is for this reason that electrical wires are coated to make them more safe to handle. Metals, on the other hand, usually make good conductors. In fact, copper is used in most electrical wires and circuit boards for this reason. Pre-Activity Prediction : Have students feel and examine the test insulating materials Styrofoam, aluminum foil, cotton, air , and have groups make predictions about which they think will work best. Their predictions give some indication of their understanding of heat transfer and insulation concepts. Embedded Assessment : Observe students during the experimental process.

Evaluate their comprehension of the subject matter and activity engagement using the criteria provided in the Rubric for Performance Assessment , which considers their understanding of insulating materials and teamwork. Homework : Ask students to write paragraph-long answers to the two following questions, to turn in the next day or share in a class discussion. Review their answers to gauge their comprehension of the activity content. Use data obtained from the Data Chart for the bar graph. So students can experience first hand that foil is not a good insulator, extend the activity with this quick hands-on demonstration:.

Kessler, James H. Boston, MA: Delmar Publishers, ISBN: The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under a National Science Foundation GK grant. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.


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Why K engineering? Find more at TeachEngineering. Quick Look. Activity dependency indicates that this activity relies upon the contents of the TeachEngineering document s listed. Print this activity. Subscribe to our newsletter. Educators Share Experiences. Summary That heat flows from hot to cold is an unavoidable truth of life.

People have put a lot of effort into stopping this natural physical behavior, however all they have been able to do is slow the process. Student teams investigate the properties of insulators in their attempts to keep cups of water from freezing, and once frozen, to keep them from melting.

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Grade 4 Do you agree with this alignment? Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects. Do you get the picture? Now think of a particle at the surface.

Module 2: Science - Investigating Materials

It has no particles above it. That leaves the particles at the surface with extra attractive force to spare, so the particles at the surface will hold together more strongly. This creates a tough, fairly strong, temporary skin across the surface. Scientists agree to call this extra pull between surface particles of certain liquids, surface tension. Water has a much higher surface tension than most other liquids. You might like to try the experiment with other liquids to show this.

Key Focus Question: How can you use models, experiments and discussions to help pupils build a picture of air? Classroom teachers often resort to teaching science with talk in the mother tongue and writing and testing in the target language, such as Arabic, Kiswahili, English or French. This is the focus of Case Study 1. What pupils say, as they point out something, reveals what they know.

Encourage the use of lots of different descriptive words; this is an ideal time to reinforce language learning. Many teachers of younger pupils do not believe you can teach a whole science lesson through the medium of English. At a recent workshop in South Africa, the co-presenter, Lawrence Manzezulu, challenged them to try. Nervously, a teacher volunteered to do the teaching, starting by explaining that she would only be speaking English — but pupils would be free to talk in whatever language they needed at the time.

Take a soccer ball or other ball and tell your pupils it represents the Earth. Hold it out in your left hand and move your right pointing finger slowly towards it from a distance as if it were a spaceship coming back to Earth. Tell pupils to raise their hands when they think the spaceship has reached the air. Note when the hands go up. Stop when you are a few millimeters from the surface of the ball. Here is where the air starts. Now ask pairs of pupils to work through the small experiments in Resource 2: Air experiments to find out more about the air around them. Are you surprised by their ideas?

Listening to their ideas and observations gives you an opportunity to assess their understanding of what air is and how it behaves. In the Key Activity of Module 1 Section 4 , pupils observed and researched things that move in air.

Investigate Materials: Cotton by Nomad Press (, Paperback) for sale online | eBay

Activity 2 integrates well with that work and could be done at the same time. But you could start by observing and comparing non-living things, for example sheets of paper, parachutes, kites and airplanes. It can be useful to observe and compare things dropping, or falling through air. It begins to give pupils the idea that air must consist of small particles that are free to move, but nevertheless get in the way and push against things as they drop. When Paulina Kiyonga at KamonkoliPrimary School gave her pupils the chance to raise their own questions about air, Mutumba wanted to know what kept an airplane up in the air.

Paulina got some advice from a colleague at nearby KamonkoliHigh School. Read his advice in Resource 3: What lifts an airplane? Some of the demonstrations and activities he suggested really puzzled the pupils, especially the one where the table tennis ball could not be blown out of the funnel, no matter how hard David tried.


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Yet tiny Jimmy could hit the roof by blowing through a tube of cardboard. What would happen if the bridge were the other way up? She praised them and let them test this out as well. At the end of the lesson, they gave a short presentation to the head teacher about this question. Resource 4: The slow paper race gives additional ideas and advice. If you watch the way a sheet of paper cuts its way through the air as it falls, you can almost imagine the invisible particles getting in its way. Paulina mentioned particles when explaining the low pressure above the wing of an airplane. In the Key Activity , you use the pupils to be particles in the air.

Many pupils enjoy learning by touching and doing, they enjoy being active and find it easier to remember what they have actually experienced. In Case Study 3 , one teacher builds a model to show how air is made up of a mixture of different particles and follows this up with investigations around breathing. Mabel Amooti really enjoyed science at high school, and she was enthusiastic about her pupils learning science in an active way.

Her class had been looking at air and talking about how it was made up of different gases and how people breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. You breathe in a mixture of gases and breathe out a mixture.

Section 2: Exploring solids

How could she show this? The particles of each gas are invisible. To make it clearer, Mabel demonstrated with a model. She used everyday granular solids salt, pepper, sugar, sand to represent the separate parts of air and then very clearly mixed them together. Rather, all the gases go into our lungs but only the oxygen moves into the bloodstream. She was delighted with their results.