Internet Activities In Nigeria: Ethics and Best Practice By Aliyu Ahmed Ahmed

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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Oct 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Introduction

Corresponding author. Received Mar 26; Accepted Aug Abstract Background As antiretroviral therapy ART programs expand access, there is an increase in burden to a healthcare system. Results Generally, performance trends showed improvement across most indicator domains. Data analysis The p trend command of StataIC 13 statistical software was used to determine trends of performance over the review period.

Open in a separate window. Our findings show that even though secondary health facilities may not provide as much high quality of services at the early years of an HIV program, they catch up and even surpass tertiary levels but over time as the program matures, Improvement across all indicators from baseline in to was likely the result of planned activities designed to address deficiencies identified during the first two successive HIVQUAL-N cycles.

Acknowledgements I wish to acknowledge Nwaneka Okereke and Chinenye Ugoji for providing access to the data used in this study. Appendix 2 See Fig. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Contributor Information Ahmad Aliyu, Email: moc. References 1.

Management of HIV-1 infection with a combination of nevirapine, stavudine, and lamivudine: a preliminary report on the Nigerian antiretroviral program. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Mocroft A, Lundgren JD.

Challenges and Strategies for Improving Training of Mid-Level Research Personnel in Nigeria

J Antimicrob Chemother. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria: an overview of research studies and implications for policy and practice.


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Inflammation and complications of HIV disease. J Infect Dis. HIV-associated opportunistic infections-going, going, but not gone: the continued need for prevention and treatment guidelines.


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Clin Infect Dis. Nigeria Population Health-related quality of life assessment after antiretroviral therapy: a review of the literature. Brent RJ. Health Econ. Health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa. AIDS Care. Ann Intern Med. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the aqueous leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides.


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Though a large number of traditionally used plants for the treatment of enteric fever were identified, further scientific validation of the traditional claims of anti-typhoid properties is imperative. This would establish their candidature for any possible future research for active principles and the possible development of new cheaper and more effective anti-typhoid drugs, as well as in the conservation of this rich diversity of medicinal plants.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities , ethnobotany , gombe state , north-eastern Nigeria , phytochemical screening , senna siamea , typhoid fever Procedia PDF Downloads These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model.

Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology. Keywords: green building technology , construction , post construction , degradation Procedia PDF Downloads The study utilized primary source of data obtained from two selected institution librarians. Finding revealed varying results in terms of skills acquired by librarians before and after digitization of the two institutions.

The study reports that journals publication, text book, CD-ROMS, conference papers and proceedings, theses, dissertations and seminar papers are among the information resources available for digitization. The study further documents that copyright issue, power failure, and unavailability of needed materials are among the challenges facing the digitization of library of the institution.

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On the basis of the finding, the study concluded that digitization of library enhances efficiency in organization and retrieval of information services. The study therefore recommended that software should be upgraded with backup, training of the librarians on digital process, installation of antivirus and enhancement of technical collaboration between the library and MIS. The study determined the sequence that was more effective and mostly adopted by teachers of the operations.

One hundred teachers and sixty pupils 60 from primary one were used for the study. The pupils were divided into two equal groups. The researcher taught these operations to each group separately for four weeks 4 weeks. In order to generate the needed data for the study, questionnaires and tests were administered on the samples.

Consequently, the researcher concluded that primary schools teachers, authors of primary mathematics textbooks, and curriculum planner should adopt the AMSD sequence of teaching these operations. Keywords: matematic , high school , four basic operations , effectiveness of teaching Procedia PDF Downloads Abubakar Abstract: Fadama tillage in Northern Nigeria and in Zaria in particular, has relied on manual labour and corresponding implements which are associated with drudgery, loss of human energy due to bending and reduced productivity.

A survey was conducted to study the present tillage practices and determine the constraints associated with the use of animal traction for mechanized tillage of the Fadama. The study revealed that Fadama farmers mostly aged between 36 and 60 years use manual labour with tools like small hoe, big hoe and rake to till during the dry season October of one year to March of the next year. Most of the Fadama farmers believe that tillage operations like ploughing, harrowing and basin making are very important tillage activities in the preparation of seedbeds for crops like green maize, sugarcane and vegetables, but are constrained to using animal traction for tillage due to beliefs like unsuitability of the workbulls and corresponding implements, Fadama soil being too heavy for the system and the non-attainment of deep tillage required by crops like sugarcane and potato.

These were affirmed by local blacksmiths of animal traction implements and agricultural officers of government establishments. One of the major issues inside the oil industry is how to control scale formation, regardless of whether it is in the wellhead equipment, down-hole pipelines or even the actual field formation. The best approach to handle the challenge associated with oilfield scale formation is the application of scale inhibitors to avert the scale formation.

Chemical inhibitors have been employed in doing such. But due to environmental regulations, the industry have focused on using green scale inhibitors to mitigate the formation of scales. Both PASP and TH are non-threshold inhibitors, therefore their efficiency was only seeing in delaying the deposition of the silicate scales. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience QoE for their consumers.

In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment.

In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score MOS for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment. Keywords: frame freezing , mean opinion score , objective assessment , subjective evaluation Procedia PDF Downloads Kaura Abstract: This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash ASA obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement OPC on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar.

ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent.

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ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam 40mm x 40mm x mm at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size 40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA.

There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0. The scanning electron microscope SEM was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash , cement mortar , cement paste , scanning electron microscope Procedia PDF Downloads Usman Abstract: Household waste form a larger proportion of waste generated across the state, accumulation of organic waste is an apparent problem and the existing dump sites could be overstressed.

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Niger state has abundant arable land and water resources thus should be one of the highest producers of agricultural crops in the country. However, the major challenge to agricultural sector today is the loss of soil nutrient coupled with high cost of fertilizer. These have continued to increase the use of fertilizer and decomposed solid waste for enhancing agricultural yield, which have varying effects on the soil as well a threat to human livelihood.

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Consequently, vegetable yield samples from poultry droppings decomposed household waste manure, NPK treatments and control from each replication were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional component as well as heavy metal concentration. The result shows that the treatments do not devoid the concentrations of any nutritional components while the anti-nutritional analysis proved that NPK had higher oxalate content than control and organic treats.

Thus, eco-agriculture should be widely accepted and promoted by the stakeholders for soil amendment, higher yield, strategies for sustainable environmental protection, food security, poverty eradication, attainment of sustainable development and healthy livelihood. Keywords: anti-nutritional , healthy livelihood , nutritional waste , organic waste Procedia PDF Downloads Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities.

This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria.