Terra Muta (Italian Edition)

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Giuseppe Pelle was arrested on April 22, , as a result of Operation Reale Royal , together with 8 others, including two of his brothers, Domenico and Sebastiano, and his son. In January , Giuseppe Pelle, his son Antonio and his wife Marianna Barbaro were arrested again for faking depression to stay out of jail. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hidden categories: Articles with Italian-language external links Webarchive template wayback links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Italiano Edit links. Write a Review. Traveller Overview. Local Weather. Powered by Weather Underground.

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Alps vs. There is also evidence for negative effects of climate on demographic parameters. Interestingly, birds showed some acclimatization, being able to optimize their reproductive output in relation to the NAO index, but they performed particularly badly when extreme weather events occurred. In mountain systems, bird response to temperature may vary at both small and large scales. Among birds, climate change has affected the phenology of many species, leading to changed timing of breeding and migration e. Few studies have shown changes in mountain bird phenology explicitly linked to climate change.


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  • However, local conditions e. Indeed, the extent, duration and timing of snow cover are likely to be important factors acting on the phenology of mountain birds in general.

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    For birds in the European Alps and North American mountains, patterns in breeding season phenology are typically tied to the snowmelt e. There is evidence that responses to changes in snowmelt phenology vary between species and populations. None of the above studies found trends over time linked to climate change, but it can be inferred that climate change acting on snow melt phenology could affect these species in the future, especially given that snow melt has occurred progressively earlier, and snow cover has declined in extent in the northern hemisphere IPCC However, little investigation of the links between such changes and bird populations has been done.

    Most of the evidence comes from the British uplands. These findings suggest that continued warming would have negative effects on these species. We found only one study considering the role of climate change on plant food sources for mountain birds. The most supported explanation was that Lodgepole Pine Pinus contorta seed availability varied with temperature, where with increasing temperatures, trees prematurely shed their seeds, reducing the carrying capacity for Cassia Crossbill breeding later in the year.

    Snow patches can represent an important foraging habitat, providing both arthropod fallout and suitable sites at their margins for the collection of soil invertebrates, particularly during the nesting and rearing period of many mountain birds. Changes in amount and duration of snow may therefore affect these species via food resources.

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    Climate change may also affect more complex linkages across different trophic levels. Martin and Maron conducted an experiment showing that climate change in the form of reduced snowfall in mountains and allowing increased ungulate herbivory in winter can negatively affect diverse species interactions. These experimental results suggest that climate impacts can interact with other drivers of habitat change and strongly influence plant—animal and other ecological interactions.

    Few studies have considered elevation shifts in the distributions of Holarctic mountain birds. There was little evidence of consistent patterns across the studies and a wide variation among species. In some cases, there were fairly consistent upward shifts in most species e. There were estimates of elevation shift from seven published studies analysed, five from Europe and two from North America. Changes in bird population trends along elevation gradients over time are similarly inconsistent across studies.

    Shifting vegetation zones in mountains, in particular an advance of the treeline towards higher elevations, have been observed in many studies e. Lehikoinen and Virkkala acknowledged a land use and species trait effect due to the high level of unexplained variation in models predicting the change in density of birds in relation to temperature change.

    For these species, the predicted average percentage loss in geographical range due to land use change was In comparison, the predicted loss due to climate change alone was 7. Over time, forest management has changed in intensity e.

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    At the same time, climate change may be affecting forest bird assemblages either directly or indirectly by influencing cover, productivity and composition of forest systems. However, it is generally unclear which of these two pressures climate change or forestry practices is the most important driver in changes in bird distribution. Changes in forest composition could cause opposite shifts i.

    For example, Archaux suggested that changes in forest management that favoured coniferous at the expense of broadleaved trees might have caused forest birds to have shifted their mean elevation downwards. Virkkala found that forest management favoured passerine species benefitting from climate change, so that direct habitat alteration was connected to the indirect effects of climate change. Both of these forest species were predicted to undergo range contraction in the Alps as a consequence of climate change. These included increasing the number of forest gaps for Western Capercaillie , increasing bilberry Vaccinium spp.

    However, such interventions may have to work against the natural forest dynamics and could be expensive. These traditional grazing practices have been largely abandoned in some areas due to social and economic factors, especially in the European Alps. However, the effects of grazing on mountain bird populations are still not well understood. Climate change can also have direct impacts on grazing management, although this is less well studied. In Nepal, where transhumance is a common practice, herders perceived the impact of climate change through personal experience.

    These perceptions accorded with temperature and rainfall trends in the same region. As a result, herders sought to adjust their transhumance patterns to the changed conditions by altering the timing of seasonal livestock movements. The consequences of such management responses for mountain bird populations, however, remain unknown.

    Given the varied different effects of grazing on mountain birds and the lack of research on likely responses of grazing management practices to future climate change, further investigations are needed to examine potential effects of grazing regimes on mountain bird populations before we can apply them as potential conservation tools.

    Local communities benefit economically from tourism. The impact of snowsports on biodiversity is a major topic studied in the European Alps, where there are c. In contrast, snowsport activities, including skiing operations in North America and the Eastern Holarctic, remain at a relatively low density, probably with only local effects on biodiversity Martin b.

    Interactive effects of climate change and outdoor sports could increase the above negative impacts on bird populations in the future. Global warming is having important economic consequences for the skiing industry due to reduced snow cover and persistence. We found only one relevant example that tested the importance of biotic interactions among birds along elevation gradients. Freeman and Montgomery assessed potential competition between Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus , which generally inhabits lower elevations but which has shifted its distributions towards higher elevations, and the conspecific Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli , which is largely confined to mountaintops.

    Our literature review has clearly highlighted the need for more detailed studies of mountain birds, with several papers stating that a valuable conservation framework can be achieved only if such knowledge gaps are bridged see Research gaps and conclusion ; Fig. Despite this, we found that most studies on this topic identified adaptation strategies for mountain and upland species threatened by climate change.

    The same authors also predicted that Some habitats may also be more prone to climate change than others. Targeted habitat management should be considered as an adaptive conservation tool for various species threatened by climate change Fig. Such intensive actions can be very costly and in conflict with many economic goals, so management should projected over large areas to support viable wildlife populations. Our literature review has shown that there is a growing body of evidence that climate change is affecting the reproduction, survival population trends and distribution of mountain birds.

    These changes may have been mediated by direct effects of climate on physiology, indirect effects of changes in habitat or via interactions with other biotic and abiotic changes. However, patterns are often highly variable e.